Commit e57e6a04 authored by Jan Möbius's avatar Jan Möbius
Browse files

Added pybind

parent a7ec7335
# CMakeLists.txt -- Build system for the pybind11 modules
#
# Copyright (c) 2015 Wenzel Jakob <wenzel@inf.ethz.ch>
#
# All rights reserved. Use of this source code is governed by a
# BSD-style license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 2.8.12)
if (POLICY CMP0048)
# cmake warns if loaded from a min-3.0-required parent dir, so silence the warning:
cmake_policy(SET CMP0048 NEW)
endif()
# CMake versions < 3.4.0 do not support try_compile/pthread checks without C as active language.
if(CMAKE_VERSION VERSION_LESS 3.4.0)
project(pybind11)
else()
project(pybind11 CXX)
endif()
# Check if pybind11 is being used directly or via add_subdirectory
set(PYBIND11_MASTER_PROJECT OFF)
if (CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR STREQUAL CMAKE_SOURCE_DIR)
set(PYBIND11_MASTER_PROJECT ON)
endif()
option(PYBIND11_INSTALL "Install pybind11 header files?" ${PYBIND11_MASTER_PROJECT})
option(PYBIND11_TEST "Build pybind11 test suite?" ${PYBIND11_MASTER_PROJECT})
list(APPEND CMAKE_MODULE_PATH "${CMAKE_CURRENT_LIST_DIR}/tools")
# Cache variables so pybind11_add_module can be used in parent projects
set(PYBIND11_INCLUDE_DIR "${CMAKE_CURRENT_LIST_DIR}/include" CACHE INTERNAL "")
set(PYTHON_INCLUDE_DIRS ${PYTHON_INCLUDE_DIRS} CACHE INTERNAL "")
set(PYTHON_LIBRARIES ${PYTHON_LIBRARIES} CACHE INTERNAL "")
set(PYTHON_MODULE_PREFIX ${PYTHON_MODULE_PREFIX} CACHE INTERNAL "")
set(PYTHON_MODULE_EXTENSION ${PYTHON_MODULE_EXTENSION} CACHE INTERNAL "")
set(PYTHON_VERSION_MAJOR ${PYTHON_VERSION_MAJOR} CACHE INTERNAL "")
set(PYTHON_VERSION_MINOR ${PYTHON_VERSION_MINOR} CACHE INTERNAL "")
# NB: when adding a header don't forget to also add it to setup.py
set(PYBIND11_HEADERS
include/pybind11/detail/class.h
include/pybind11/detail/common.h
include/pybind11/detail/descr.h
include/pybind11/detail/init.h
include/pybind11/detail/internals.h
include/pybind11/detail/typeid.h
include/pybind11/attr.h
include/pybind11/buffer_info.h
include/pybind11/cast.h
include/pybind11/chrono.h
include/pybind11/common.h
include/pybind11/complex.h
include/pybind11/options.h
include/pybind11/eigen.h
include/pybind11/embed.h
include/pybind11/eval.h
include/pybind11/functional.h
include/pybind11/numpy.h
include/pybind11/operators.h
include/pybind11/pybind11.h
include/pybind11/pytypes.h
include/pybind11/stl.h
include/pybind11/stl_bind.h
)
string(REPLACE "include/" "${CMAKE_CURRENT_SOURCE_DIR}/include/"
PYBIND11_HEADERS "${PYBIND11_HEADERS}")
if (PYBIND11_TEST)
add_subdirectory(tests)
endif()
include(GNUInstallDirs)
include(CMakePackageConfigHelpers)
# extract project version from source
file(STRINGS "${PYBIND11_INCLUDE_DIR}/pybind11/detail/common.h" pybind11_version_defines
REGEX "#define PYBIND11_VERSION_(MAJOR|MINOR|PATCH) ")
foreach(ver ${pybind11_version_defines})
if (ver MATCHES "#define PYBIND11_VERSION_(MAJOR|MINOR|PATCH) +([^ ]+)$")
set(PYBIND11_VERSION_${CMAKE_MATCH_1} "${CMAKE_MATCH_2}" CACHE INTERNAL "")
endif()
endforeach()
set(${PROJECT_NAME}_VERSION ${PYBIND11_VERSION_MAJOR}.${PYBIND11_VERSION_MINOR}.${PYBIND11_VERSION_PATCH})
message(STATUS "pybind11 v${${PROJECT_NAME}_VERSION}")
option (USE_PYTHON_INCLUDE_DIR "Install pybind11 headers in Python include directory instead of default installation prefix" OFF)
if (USE_PYTHON_INCLUDE_DIR)
file(RELATIVE_PATH CMAKE_INSTALL_INCLUDEDIR ${CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX} ${PYTHON_INCLUDE_DIRS})
endif()
if(NOT (CMAKE_VERSION VERSION_LESS 3.0)) # CMake >= 3.0
# Build an interface library target:
add_library(pybind11 INTERFACE)
add_library(pybind11::pybind11 ALIAS pybind11) # to match exported target
target_include_directories(pybind11 INTERFACE $<BUILD_INTERFACE:${PYBIND11_INCLUDE_DIR}>
$<BUILD_INTERFACE:${PYTHON_INCLUDE_DIRS}>
$<INSTALL_INTERFACE:${CMAKE_INSTALL_INCLUDEDIR}>)
target_compile_options(pybind11 INTERFACE $<BUILD_INTERFACE:${PYBIND11_CPP_STANDARD}>)
add_library(module INTERFACE)
add_library(pybind11::module ALIAS module)
if(NOT MSVC)
target_compile_options(module INTERFACE -fvisibility=hidden)
endif()
target_link_libraries(module INTERFACE pybind11::pybind11)
if(WIN32 OR CYGWIN)
target_link_libraries(module INTERFACE $<BUILD_INTERFACE:${PYTHON_LIBRARIES}>)
elseif(APPLE)
target_link_libraries(module INTERFACE "-undefined dynamic_lookup")
endif()
add_library(embed INTERFACE)
add_library(pybind11::embed ALIAS embed)
target_link_libraries(embed INTERFACE pybind11::pybind11 $<BUILD_INTERFACE:${PYTHON_LIBRARIES}>)
endif()
if (PYBIND11_INSTALL)
install(DIRECTORY ${PYBIND11_INCLUDE_DIR}/pybind11 DESTINATION ${CMAKE_INSTALL_INCLUDEDIR})
# GNUInstallDirs "DATADIR" wrong here; CMake search path wants "share".
set(PYBIND11_CMAKECONFIG_INSTALL_DIR "share/cmake/${PROJECT_NAME}" CACHE STRING "install path for pybind11Config.cmake")
configure_package_config_file(tools/${PROJECT_NAME}Config.cmake.in
"${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/${PROJECT_NAME}Config.cmake"
INSTALL_DESTINATION ${PYBIND11_CMAKECONFIG_INSTALL_DIR})
# Remove CMAKE_SIZEOF_VOID_P from ConfigVersion.cmake since the library does
# not depend on architecture specific settings or libraries.
set(_PYBIND11_CMAKE_SIZEOF_VOID_P ${CMAKE_SIZEOF_VOID_P})
unset(CMAKE_SIZEOF_VOID_P)
write_basic_package_version_file(${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/${PROJECT_NAME}ConfigVersion.cmake
VERSION ${${PROJECT_NAME}_VERSION}
COMPATIBILITY AnyNewerVersion)
set(CMAKE_SIZEOF_VOID_P ${_PYBIND11_CMAKE_SIZEOF_VOID_P})
install(FILES ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/${PROJECT_NAME}Config.cmake
${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/${PROJECT_NAME}ConfigVersion.cmake
tools/FindPythonLibsNew.cmake
tools/pybind11Tools.cmake
DESTINATION ${PYBIND11_CMAKECONFIG_INSTALL_DIR})
if(NOT (CMAKE_VERSION VERSION_LESS 3.0))
if(NOT PYBIND11_EXPORT_NAME)
set(PYBIND11_EXPORT_NAME "${PROJECT_NAME}Targets")
endif()
install(TARGETS pybind11 module embed
EXPORT "${PYBIND11_EXPORT_NAME}")
if(PYBIND11_MASTER_PROJECT)
install(EXPORT "${PYBIND11_EXPORT_NAME}"
NAMESPACE "${PROJECT_NAME}::"
DESTINATION ${PYBIND11_CMAKECONFIG_INSTALL_DIR})
endif()
endif()
endif()
Thank you for your interest in this project! Please refer to the following
sections on how to contribute code and bug reports.
### Reporting bugs
At the moment, this project is run in the spare time of a single person
([Wenzel Jakob](http://rgl.epfl.ch/people/wjakob)) with very limited resources
for issue tracker tickets. Thus, before submitting a question or bug report,
please take a moment of your time and ensure that your issue isn't already
discussed in the project documentation provided at
[http://pybind11.readthedocs.org/en/latest](http://pybind11.readthedocs.org/en/latest).
Assuming that you have identified a previously unknown problem or an important
question, it's essential that you submit a self-contained and minimal piece of
code that reproduces the problem. In other words: no external dependencies,
isolate the function(s) that cause breakage, submit matched and complete C++
and Python snippets that can be easily compiled and run on my end.
## Pull requests
Contributions are submitted, reviewed, and accepted using Github pull requests.
Please refer to [this
article](https://help.github.com/articles/using-pull-requests) for details and
adhere to the following rules to make the process as smooth as possible:
* Make a new branch for every feature you're working on.
* Make small and clean pull requests that are easy to review but make sure they
do add value by themselves.
* Add tests for any new functionality and run the test suite (``make pytest``)
to ensure that no existing features break.
* Please run ``flake8`` and ``tools/check-style.sh`` to check your code matches
the project style. (Note that ``check-style.sh`` requires ``gawk``.)
* This project has a strong focus on providing general solutions using a
minimal amount of code, thus small pull requests are greatly preferred.
### Licensing of contributions
pybind11 is provided under a BSD-style license that can be found in the
``LICENSE`` file. By using, distributing, or contributing to this project, you
agree to the terms and conditions of this license.
You are under no obligation whatsoever to provide any bug fixes, patches, or
upgrades to the features, functionality or performance of the source code
("Enhancements") to anyone; however, if you choose to make your Enhancements
available either publicly, or directly to the author of this software, without
imposing a separate written license agreement for such Enhancements, then you
hereby grant the following license: a non-exclusive, royalty-free perpetual
license to install, use, modify, prepare derivative works, incorporate into
other computer software, distribute, and sublicense such enhancements or
derivative works thereof, in binary and source code form.
Make sure you've completed the following steps before submitting your issue -- thank you!
1. Check if your question has already been answered in the [FAQ](http://pybind11.readthedocs.io/en/latest/faq.html) section.
2. Make sure you've read the [documentation](http://pybind11.readthedocs.io/en/latest/). Your issue may be addressed there.
3. If those resources didn't help and you only have a short question (not a bug report), consider asking in the [Gitter chat room](https://gitter.im/pybind/Lobby).
4. If you have a genuine bug report or a more complex question which is not answered in the previous items (or not suitable for chat), please fill in the details below.
5. Include a self-contained and minimal piece of code that reproduces the problem. If that's not possible, try to make the description as clear as possible.
*After reading, remove this checklist and the template text in parentheses below.*
## Issue description
(Provide a short description, state the expected behavior and what actually happens.)
## Reproducible example code
(The code should be minimal, have no external dependencies, isolate the function(s) that cause breakage. Submit matched and complete C++ and Python snippets that can be easily compiled and run to diagnose the issue.)
Copyright (c) 2016 Wenzel Jakob <wenzel.jakob@epfl.ch>, All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. Neither the name of the copyright holder nor the names of its contributors
may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
without specific prior written permission.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER
CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,
OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
Please also refer to the file CONTRIBUTING.md, which clarifies licensing of
external contributions to this project including patches, pull requests, etc.
recursive-include include/pybind11 *.h
include LICENSE README.md CONTRIBUTING.md
![pybind11 logo](https://github.com/pybind/pybind11/raw/master/docs/pybind11-logo.png)
# pybind11 — Seamless operability between C++11 and Python
[![Documentation Status](https://readthedocs.org/projects/pybind11/badge/?version=master)](http://pybind11.readthedocs.org/en/master/?badge=master)
[![Documentation Status](https://readthedocs.org/projects/pybind11/badge/?version=stable)](http://pybind11.readthedocs.org/en/stable/?badge=stable)
[![Gitter chat](https://img.shields.io/gitter/room/gitterHQ/gitter.svg)](https://gitter.im/pybind/Lobby)
[![Build Status](https://travis-ci.org/pybind/pybind11.svg?branch=master)](https://travis-ci.org/pybind/pybind11)
[![Build status](https://ci.appveyor.com/api/projects/status/riaj54pn4h08xy40?svg=true)](https://ci.appveyor.com/project/wjakob/pybind11)
**pybind11** is a lightweight header-only library that exposes C++ types in Python
and vice versa, mainly to create Python bindings of existing C++ code. Its
goals and syntax are similar to the excellent
[Boost.Python](http://www.boost.org/doc/libs/1_58_0/libs/python/doc/) library
by David Abrahams: to minimize boilerplate code in traditional extension
modules by inferring type information using compile-time introspection.
The main issue with Boost.Python—and the reason for creating such a similar
project—is Boost. Boost is an enormously large and complex suite of utility
libraries that works with almost every C++ compiler in existence. This
compatibility has its cost: arcane template tricks and workarounds are
necessary to support the oldest and buggiest of compiler specimens. Now that
C++11-compatible compilers are widely available, this heavy machinery has
become an excessively large and unnecessary dependency.
Think of this library as a tiny self-contained version of Boost.Python with
everything stripped away that isn't relevant for binding generation. Without
comments, the core header files only require ~4K lines of code and depend on
Python (2.7 or 3.x, or PyPy2.7 >= 5.7) and the C++ standard library. This
compact implementation was possible thanks to some of the new C++11 language
features (specifically: tuples, lambda functions and variadic templates). Since
its creation, this library has grown beyond Boost.Python in many ways, leading
to dramatically simpler binding code in many common situations.
Tutorial and reference documentation is provided at
[http://pybind11.readthedocs.org/en/master](http://pybind11.readthedocs.org/en/master).
A PDF version of the manual is available
[here](https://media.readthedocs.org/pdf/pybind11/master/pybind11.pdf).
## Core features
pybind11 can map the following core C++ features to Python
- Functions accepting and returning custom data structures per value, reference, or pointer
- Instance methods and static methods
- Overloaded functions
- Instance attributes and static attributes
- Arbitrary exception types
- Enumerations
- Callbacks
- Iterators and ranges
- Custom operators
- Single and multiple inheritance
- STL data structures
- Smart pointers with reference counting like ``std::shared_ptr``
- Internal references with correct reference counting
- C++ classes with virtual (and pure virtual) methods can be extended in Python
## Goodies
In addition to the core functionality, pybind11 provides some extra goodies:
- Python 2.7, 3.x, and PyPy (PyPy2.7 >= 5.7) are supported with an
implementation-agnostic interface.
- It is possible to bind C++11 lambda functions with captured variables. The
lambda capture data is stored inside the resulting Python function object.
- pybind11 uses C++11 move constructors and move assignment operators whenever
possible to efficiently transfer custom data types.
- It's easy to expose the internal storage of custom data types through
Pythons' buffer protocols. This is handy e.g. for fast conversion between
C++ matrix classes like Eigen and NumPy without expensive copy operations.
- pybind11 can automatically vectorize functions so that they are transparently
applied to all entries of one or more NumPy array arguments.
- Python's slice-based access and assignment operations can be supported with
just a few lines of code.
- Everything is contained in just a few header files; there is no need to link
against any additional libraries.
- Binaries are generally smaller by a factor of at least 2 compared to
equivalent bindings generated by Boost.Python. A recent pybind11 conversion
of PyRosetta, an enormous Boost.Python binding project,
[reported](http://graylab.jhu.edu/RosettaCon2016/PyRosetta-4.pdf) a binary
size reduction of **5.4x** and compile time reduction by **5.8x**.
- Function signatures are precomputed at compile time (using ``constexpr``),
leading to smaller binaries.
- With little extra effort, C++ types can be pickled and unpickled similar to
regular Python objects.
## Supported compilers
1. Clang/LLVM 3.3 or newer (for Apple Xcode's clang, this is 5.0.0 or newer)
2. GCC 4.8 or newer
3. Microsoft Visual Studio 2015 Update 3 or newer
4. Intel C++ compiler 17 or newer (16 with pybind11 v2.0 and 15 with pybind11 v2.0 and a [workaround](https://github.com/pybind/pybind11/issues/276))
5. Cygwin/GCC (tested on 2.5.1)
## About
This project was created by [Wenzel Jakob](http://rgl.epfl.ch/people/wjakob).
Significant features and/or improvements to the code were contributed by
Jonas Adler,
Sylvain Corlay,
Trent Houliston,
Axel Huebl,
@hulucc,
Sergey Lyskov
Johan Mabille,
Tomasz Miąsko,
Dean Moldovan,
Ben Pritchard,
Jason Rhinelander,
Boris Schäling,
Pim Schellart,
Ivan Smirnov, and
Patrick Stewart.
### License
pybind11 is provided under a BSD-style license that can be found in the
``LICENSE`` file. By using, distributing, or contributing to this project,
you agree to the terms and conditions of this license.
/*
pybind11/attr.h: Infrastructure for processing custom
type and function attributes
Copyright (c) 2016 Wenzel Jakob <wenzel.jakob@epfl.ch>
All rights reserved. Use of this source code is governed by a
BSD-style license that can be found in the LICENSE file.
*/
#pragma once
#include "cast.h"
NAMESPACE_BEGIN(PYBIND11_NAMESPACE)
/// \addtogroup annotations
/// @{
/// Annotation for methods
struct is_method { handle class_; is_method(const handle &c) : class_(c) { } };
/// Annotation for operators
struct is_operator { };
/// Annotation for parent scope
struct scope { handle value; scope(const handle &s) : value(s) { } };
/// Annotation for documentation
struct doc { const char *value; doc(const char *value) : value(value) { } };
/// Annotation for function names
struct name { const char *value; name(const char *value) : value(value) { } };
/// Annotation indicating that a function is an overload associated with a given "sibling"
struct sibling { handle value; sibling(const handle &value) : value(value.ptr()) { } };
/// Annotation indicating that a class derives from another given type
template <typename T> struct base {
PYBIND11_DEPRECATED("base<T>() was deprecated in favor of specifying 'T' as a template argument to class_")
base() { }
};
/// Keep patient alive while nurse lives
template <size_t Nurse, size_t Patient> struct keep_alive { };
/// Annotation indicating that a class is involved in a multiple inheritance relationship
struct multiple_inheritance { };
/// Annotation which enables dynamic attributes, i.e. adds `__dict__` to a class
struct dynamic_attr { };
/// Annotation which enables the buffer protocol for a type
struct buffer_protocol { };
/// Annotation which requests that a special metaclass is created for a type
struct metaclass {
handle value;
PYBIND11_DEPRECATED("py::metaclass() is no longer required. It's turned on by default now.")
metaclass() {}
/// Override pybind11's default metaclass
explicit metaclass(handle value) : value(value) { }
};
/// Annotation that marks a class as local to the module:
struct module_local { const bool value; constexpr module_local(bool v = true) : value(v) { } };
/// Annotation to mark enums as an arithmetic type
struct arithmetic { };
/** \rst
A call policy which places one or more guard variables (``Ts...``) around the function call.
For example, this definition:
.. code-block:: cpp
m.def("foo", foo, py::call_guard<T>());
is equivalent to the following pseudocode:
.. code-block:: cpp
m.def("foo", [](args...) {
T scope_guard;
return foo(args...); // forwarded arguments
});
\endrst */
template <typename... Ts> struct call_guard;
template <> struct call_guard<> { using type = detail::void_type; };
template <typename T>
struct call_guard<T> {
static_assert(std::is_default_constructible<T>::value,
"The guard type must be default constructible");
using type = T;
};
template <typename T, typename... Ts>
struct call_guard<T, Ts...> {
struct type {
T guard{}; // Compose multiple guard types with left-to-right default-constructor order
typename call_guard<Ts...>::type next{};
};
};
/// @} annotations
NAMESPACE_BEGIN(detail)
/* Forward declarations */
enum op_id : int;
enum op_type : int;
struct undefined_t;
template <op_id id, op_type ot, typename L = undefined_t, typename R = undefined_t> struct op_;
inline void keep_alive_impl(size_t Nurse, size_t Patient, function_call &call, handle ret);
/// Internal data structure which holds metadata about a keyword argument
struct argument_record {
const char *name; ///< Argument name
const char *descr; ///< Human-readable version of the argument value
handle value; ///< Associated Python object
bool convert : 1; ///< True if the argument is allowed to convert when loading
bool none : 1; ///< True if None is allowed when loading
argument_record(const char *name, const char *descr, handle value, bool convert, bool none)
: name(name), descr(descr), value(value), convert(convert), none(none) { }
};
/// Internal data structure which holds metadata about a bound function (signature, overloads, etc.)
struct function_record {
function_record()
: is_constructor(false), is_new_style_constructor(false), is_stateless(false),
is_operator(false), has_args(false), has_kwargs(false), is_method(false) { }
/// Function name
char *name = nullptr; /* why no C++ strings? They generate heavier code.. */
// User-specified documentation string
char *doc = nullptr;
/// Human-readable version of the function signature
char *signature = nullptr;
/// List of registered keyword arguments
std::vector<argument_record> args;
/// Pointer to lambda function which converts arguments and performs the actual call